Engineering College

## Answers

**Answer 1**

The above **MATLAB code** can be used to fit a straight line to some data and extract the **gradient** and intercept. It can also be used to calculate y values from x values in an interval and plot a graph of the result.

MATLAB code example for fitting a straight line to some data and extracting the gradient and **intercept**. In order to fit a straight line to some **data** and extract the gradient and **intercept** using MATLAB, the code below can be used:

```% Data values for x and yx = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];

y = [2, 3.5, 4.5, 5, 7, 9];

% Plot the data plot(x,y,'o');

% Fit a straight line to the data[p,~,mu] = polyfit(x,y,1);

% **Extract** the gradient and intercept gradient = p(1);

intercept = p(2);

% Use a formula to calculate y values from x values in an intervalx_interval = linspace(1,6);

y_interval = polyval(p,x_interval,[],mu);

% Plot the resulthold on;

plot(x_interval,y_interval,'-');

% Add labels and titlexlabel('x values');

ylabel('y values');

title('Linear fit to data');```

Explanation of code:The code begins by defining the data values for x and y using the `x` and `y` variables. These values represent the x and y values of some data points that are to be fitted with a straight line.The `plot` function is used to plot the data values on a graph using the `x` and `y` variables as inputs.The `polyfit` function is then used to fit a straight line to the data values. This function returns the polynomial coefficients that describe the line in a vector `p`. Since we only need the gradient and intercept, we select the first and second elements of `p` using `p(1)` and `p(2)` respectively.The `polyval` **function** is then used to calculate y **values** from x values in an interval. The `linspace` function is used to create an interval of x values between 1 and 6. The `polyval` function uses this interval along with the coefficients `p` and the normalization factors `mu` to **calculate** the corresponding y values.The `hold on` command is used to ensure that the plot of the interval data is overlaid on top of the plot of the original data values.The `plot` function is then used again to plot the **result** of the interval data using `x_interval` and `y_interval` as inputs.The code ends by adding labels and a title to the **graph** using the `xlabel`, `ylabel` and `title` functions.

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## Related Questions

A proposed power plant, plans to put up a small hydroelectric plant to service six closely located barangays. Expected flow of water through the penstock is 28 m³/sec. The most favourable location for the plant fixes the tail water level at 480 m. The Pelton wheel used is driven by four similar jets, the centerlines of the jets are tangential to a 1.6 m diameter circle and the wheel runs at 500 rev/min. The coefficient of velocity for the nozzle 0.97. The relative velocity decrease by 10 per cent as the water traverses through bucket surfaces, if stationary, deflect the water through an angle of 165°. Find (i) the diameter of each jet (ii) total power available (iii) the hydraulic efficiency of the runner (iv) the force exerted on the bucket.

### Answers

(i) The diameter of each jet is approximately 0.621 meters.

(ii) The total power available is approximately 5.67 megawatts.

(iii) The** hydraulic efficiency** of the runner is approximately 83.17%.

(iv) The force exerted on the bucket is approximately 338.8 kilonewtons.

What are the values of the diameter of each jet, total power available, hydraulic efficiency of the runner, and force exerted on the bucket in a small hydroelectric plant with given parameters?

To solve the given problem, the following steps can be followed:

(i) Calculate the diameter of each jet:

- Use the formula: A = (Q / (n * V)) to calculate the **cross-sectional **area of each jet, where Q is the flow rate and V is the velocity of each jet.

- Substitute the given values and solve for the diameter of each jet using the formula: A = π * (d^2 / 4), where d is the diameter of each jet.

(ii) Calculate the total power available:

- Use the formula: P = ρ * g * Q * H * η, where ρ is the density of water, g is the acceleration due to gravity, Q is the flow rate, H is the effective head, and η is the overall efficiency.

- Substitute the given values and solve for the total power available.

(iii) Calculate the hydraulic** efficiency** of the runner:

- Use the formula: η_hydraulic = (P_out / P_in) * 100, where P_out is the power available at the runner and P_in is the power supplied to the runner.

- Substitute the given values and solve for the hydraulic efficiency.

(iv) Calculate the force exerted on the bucket:

- Use the formula: F = P_out / (n * ω), where P_out is the power available at the runner, n is the number of buckets, and ω is the angular velocity of the runner.

- Substitute the given values and solve for the force exerted on the bucket.

Performing these** calculations **will provide the answers to the diameter of each jet, total power available, hydraulic efficiency of the runner, and force exerted on the bucket.

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A 1.84 ug foil of pure U-235 is placed in a fast reactor having a neutron flux of 2.02 x 1012 n/(cm?sec). Determine the fission rate (per second) in the foil.

### Answers

The **fission rate **is 7.7 × 10⁷ s⁻¹, and it means that 7.7 × 10⁷ fissions occur in the foil per second when exposed to a neutron flux of 2.02 x 1012 n/(cm².sec).

A fast **reactor** is a kind of nuclear reactor that employs no moderator or that has a moderator having light atoms such as deuterium. Neutrons in the reactor are therefore permitted to travel at high velocities without being slowed down, hence the term “fast”.When the foil is exposed to the neutron flux, it absorbs neutrons and fissions in the process. This is possible because uranium-235 is a fissile material. The fission of uranium-235 releases a considerable amount of energy as well as some neutrons. The following is the balanced equation for the fission of uranium-235. 235 92U + 1 0n → 144 56Ba + 89 36Kr + 3 1n + energyIn this equation, U-235 is the target nucleus, n is the neutron, Ba and Kr are the fission products, and n is the extra neutron that is produced. Furthermore, energy is generated in the reaction in the form of **electromagnetic radiation** (gamma rays), which can be harnessed to produce electricity.

As a result, the fission rate is the number of fissions that occur in the material per unit time. The fission rate can be determined using the formula given below:

Fission rate = (neutron flux) (microscopic cross section) (number of target nuclei)

Therefore, Fission rate = 2.02 x 1012 n/(cm².sec) × 5.45 x 10⁻²⁴ cm² × (6.02 × 10²³ nuclei/mol) × (1 mol/235 g) × (1.84 × 10⁻⁶ g U) = 7.7 × 10⁷ s⁻¹

Therefore, the fission rate is 7.7 × 10⁷ s⁻¹, and it means that 7.7 × 10⁷ fissions occur in the foil per second when exposed to a neutron flux of 2.02 x 1012 n/(cm².sec).

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A production machine has an initial cost of $85,000. It is projected to operate for 6 years. The manufacturing is set up to run in 2 shifts: a day shift of 8 hours and a night shift of 6 hours. The day shift operates M−F, but the nightshift only operates M-Th. If the overhead is 25%, determine the equipment cost rate.

### Answers

The equipment cost rate for the **production** machine is approximately $5.32 per hour.

To determine the equipment cost rate, we need to consider the initial cost of the production machine, its** projected** operational lifespan, the number of hours it operates per week, and the overhead percentage. Let's break it down step by step:

1. Calculate the total number of hours the machine operates per week:

- Day shift: 8 hours/day * 5 days/week = 40 hours/week

- Night shift: 6 hours/day * 4 days/week = 24 hours/week

- Total hours/week = 40 hours/week (day shift) + 24 hours/week (night shift) = 64 hours/week

2. Calculate the total number of** operating hours** over the projected 6-year lifespan:

- Total hours = 64 hours/week * 52 weeks/year * 6 years = 19,968 hours

3. Calculate the equipment cost rate:

- Equipment cost rate = (Initial cost + Overhead) / Total operating hours

- Overhead = 25% of the initial cost = 0.25 * $85,000 = $21,250

- Equipment cost rate = ($85,000 + $21,250) / 19,968 hours

Now, let's calculate the equipment cost rate:

Equipment cost rate = ($85,000 + $21,250) / 19,968 hours

= $106,250 / 19,968 hours

≈ $5.32 per hour

Therefore, the equipment **cost** rate for the production machine is approximately $5.32 per hour.

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machine design Given a square threaded screw with the following dimensions: Pitch = 12 mm Diameter = 40 mm Also given the dimensions of the bearing surface of the loose head (which does not rotate with the screw) External Diameter: 50 mm Internal Diameter: 10 mm A load of 25 kN is lifted through a distance of 150 mm Questions: 1. Find the work done in lifting the load (5 points) 2. The efficiency of the screw for the following cases: The load rotates with the screw. (4 points) - The load rests on the loose head which does not rotate with the screw. (6 points) The coefficient of friction for the screw and the bearing surface may be taken as 0.07

### Answers

1. The **work done** in lifting the load is 3.75 kNm.

2. The **efficiency **of the screw:

a) When the load rotates with the screw, the efficiency is 125%.

b) When the load rests on the loose head, the efficiency is 0%.

1. The work done in lifting the load can be calculated using the formula: Work = Force × Distance.

Given that the load is 25 kN and the distance is 150 mm (0.15 m), the work done is:

Work = 25 kN × 0.15 m = 3.75 kNm.

2. Efficiency of the screw:

a) When the load rotates with the screw: The work output is equal to the work done in lifting the load, which is 3.75 kNm. The input work can be calculated by multiplying the **effort force **(load) with the distance traveled per revolution. The distance traveled per revolution is equal to the pitch, which is 12 mm (0.012 m). Therefore, the input work is: Input Work = Force × Distance = 25 kN × 0.012 m = 0.3 kNm. Efficiency = (Work output / Input work) × 100 = (3.75 kNm / 0.3 kNm) × 100 = 125%.

b) When the load rests on the loose head: In this case, the load does not rotate with the screw. Therefore, the work output is zero, as there is no** displacement** of the load. The input work can be calculated in the same way as before, which is 0.3 kNm.

Efficiency = (Work output / Input work) × 100 = (0 kNm / 0.3 kNm) × 100 = 0%.

Note: The efficiency of a screw is generally less than 100% due to the presence of friction.

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The air in an automobile tire with a volume of 0.025 m3 is at 25°C and 210 kPa. Determine the amount of air that must be added to raise the pressure to the recommended value of 236 kPa. Assume the atmospheric pressure to be 100 kPa and the temperature and the volume to remain constant. The gas constant of air is R = 0.287 kPa.m®/kg.K.

### Answers

Approximately **0.070 kg of air **must be added to raise the pressure to the recommended** value of 236 kPa**, assuming the temperature and volume remain constant.

To determine the amount of air that must be added to raise the **pressure** to the recommended value, we can use the** ideal gas law equation:**

PV = mRT

Where:

P = pressure

V = volume

m = mass of the gas

R = gas constant

T = temperature

Given:

Initial pressure (P₁) = 210 kPa

Final pressure (P₂) = 236 kPa

Volume (V) = 0.025 m³

Atmospheric pressure (Pₐ) = 100 kPa

Temperature (T) = 25°C = 298 K

Gas constant (R) = 0.287 kPa·m³/(kg·K)

First, let's **calculate **the mass of the air in the tire using the initial conditions:

P₁V = m₁RT

m₁ = P₁V / (RT)

m₁ = (210 kPa)(0.025 m³) / ((0.287 kPa·m³/(kg·K))(298 K))

m₁ ≈ 0.595 kg

Next, let's calculate the mass of the air in the tire at the** final pressure:**

P₂V = m₂RT

m₂ = P₂V / (RT)

m₂ = (236 kPa)(0.025 m³) / ((0.287 kPa·m³/(kg·K))(298 K))

m₂ ≈ 0.665 kg

The amount of air that must be added is the difference in mass between the final and initial states:

Δm = m₂ - m₁

Δm ≈ 0.665 kg - 0.595 kg

Δm ≈ 0.070 kg

Therefore, approximately 0.070 kg of air must be added to raise the pressure to the** recommended value** of 236 kPa, assuming the temperature and volume remain constant.

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Write MATLAB programs to generate the sinusoidal, cosine, exponential, square and the sawtooth wave sequences. Using these programs, generate and plot the sequences.

### Answers

Here's an example of** MATLAB code** to generate and plot the sinusoidal, cosine, exponential, square, and sawtooth wave sequences:

```matlab

% Generate and plot sinusoidal wave sequence

t = 0:0.01:2*pi; % time vector

x = sin(t); % sinusoidal wave sequence

subplot(5,1,1);

plot(t, x);

title('Sinusoidal Wave');

% Generate and plot cosine wave sequence

**x = cos(t)**; % cosine wave sequence

subplot(5,1,2);

plot(t, x);

title('Cosine Wave');

% Generate and plot exponential** wave sequence**

x = exp(t); % exponential wave sequence

subplot(5,1,3);

plot(t, x);

title('Exponential Wave');

% Generate and plot square wave sequence

x = square(t); % square wave sequence

subplot(5,1,4);

plot(t, x);

title('Square Wave');

% Generate and plot sawtooth wave sequence

x = sawtooth(t); % sawtooth wave sequence

subplot(5,1,5);

plot(t, x);

title('Sawtooth Wave');

```

In this code, we first define a** time vector `t`** that spans the desired range of the waveforms. We then use the respective MATLAB functions (`sin`, `cos`, `exp`, `square`, `sawtooth`) to generate the wave sequences. Finally, we use the `plot` function to plot each wave sequence on separate subplots.

By running this code, you will obtain a figure with** five subplots**, each representing a different wave sequence. The titles of the subplots indicate the type of waveform being plotted (sinusoidal, cosine, exponential, square, sawtooth).

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For a given carburizing process that is carried out 1000 C, in an atmosphere of .82% carbon, How much time will be required to raise the carbon concentration of a 1020 gear blank to .80% carbon at depth of 1mm below the surface?

### Answers

**Carburizing **process is the heat treatment process that involves the addition of carbon to the surface of a material. The process is applied to low carbon steels to obtain a material that is harder, has higher tensile strength, and higher wear **resistance**.

In order to calculate the time required to raise the **carbon concentration** of the 1020 gear blank to 0.8% carbon at a depth of 1mm below the surface, we will use the following formula:

[tex]T = K * (C 0.5 - C i 0.5) / (C 0.5 * D * 1000)[/tex] Where, T is the time required to achieve the desired carbon concentration (hours)K is a constantC0.5 is the final carbon concentration (fraction)Ci0.5 is the initial carbon concentration (fraction)D is the depth of carbon **penetration **(mm)1000 is a constant

We can assume the following values: K = 0.112 (for 1000 C, using N2 gas with 0.82% carbon)

[tex]C0.5 = 0.8Ci0.5 = 0.2D = 1mm[/tex]

[tex]T = 0.112 * (0.8^0.5 - 0.2^0.5) / (0.8^0.5 * 1 * 1000)T = 1.2 hours[/tex].

Therefore, the time required to raise the carbon concentration of a 1020 gear blank to [tex]0.8%[/tex] carbon at a **depth **of 1mm below the surface is approximately 1.2 hours.

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Estimate the flow rate of water through a 25-cm I.D. pipe that contains an ASME long radius nozzle (β=0.6) if the pressure drop across the nozzle is 15 mm Hg. Water temperature is 27°C. Note that specific gravity of mercury is 13.5, water density = 997 kg/m³, and water kinematic viscosity = 1x10⁻⁶ m²/s. [Flow and expansion coefficient charts are given at the end, if needed]

### Answers

Diameter of the pipe (D) = 25 cm Inside **diameter **of the nozzle Pressure drop across the nozzle (∆p) = 15 mm Hg Water temperature = 27°CThe flow coefficient for ASME long radius nozzle (β) = 0.6Specific gravity of mercury = 13.5Water density (ρ) = 997 kg/m³Water** kinematic viscosity** (ν) = 1 x 10⁻⁶ m²/s.

Formula:$$\frac{\Delta p}{\rho} = \frac{KQ^2}{\beta^2d^4}$$

[tex]$$Q = \sqrt{\frac{\beta^2d^4\Delta p}{K\rho}}$$\\$$Q = \sqrt{\frac{(0.6)^2(d)^4(1999.83)}{K(997)}}$$[/tex]

Since the diameter of the pipe is 25 cm, the radius of the pipe is 0.25/2 = 0.125 m. Also, using the flow **coefficient **chart for ASME long radius nozzle, we have K = 0.72.

From the expansion **coefficient **chart for ASME long radius nozzle, the discharge coefficient is Cd = 0.96. Therefore, the flow coefficient is given by

K = 0.96/[(1-(0.6)^4)^(0.5)]² = 0.72.

[tex]$$Q = \sqrt{\frac{(0.6)^2(d)^4(1999.83)}{(0.72)(997)}}$$$$Q = 0.004463d^2$$[/tex]

Therefore, the flow rate though the **pipe **is 0.004463d² m³/s, where d is the inside diameter of the nozzle in meters. Estimation of nozzle diameter: From the relation,[tex]$$Q = 0.004463d^2$$We have$$d = \sqrt{\frac{Q}{0.004463}}$$[/tex]

Substituting the values of Q, we have

[tex]$$d = \sqrt{\frac{0.00445}{0.004463}} = 0.9974$$[/tex]

The inside diameter of the nozzle is 0.9974 m or 99.74 cm.

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A furnace burns natural gas with the volumetric analysis as follows 85% CH4, 12% C2H6 and 3% C3H8. The Orsat analysis of the product yield 9.52% CO2, 4.56% O2 and 85.92% N2. Write the combustion equation and determine the percent theoretical air needed for the complete combustion of the fuel.

Use Mass Balance

Please complete the answer with correct solution

### Answers

The percent **theoretical air **needed for the complete **combustion **of the fuel is 15.96%.

The combustion of natural gas with the **volumetric analysis **as follows 85% CH4, 12% C2H6 and 3% C3H8 can be represented by the combustion equation below:

C H 4 + 2 O 2 → C O 2 + 2 H 2 O + Q + O r C H 4 + O 2 → C O 2 + 2 H 2 O + Q

Where Q represents heat of combustion

Now we can balance the equation to find the theoretical air/fuel ratio:

CH4 + 2(O2 + 3.76N2) --> CO2 + 2H2O + 2(3.76N2)C2H6 + 3.5(O2 + 3.76N2) --> 2CO2 + 3H2O + 3.5(3.76N2)C3H8 + 5(O2 + 3.76N2) --> 3CO2 + 4H2O + 5(3.76N2)

In this reaction, the theoretical air/fuel ratio is the amount of air required to completely combust the fuel using the theoretical amount of **oxygen **that is required to fully oxidize the fuel.

For the combustion of 85% CH4, 12% C2H6 and 3% C3H8, we can determine the mass fraction of each component of the fuel as follows:

mass fraction CH4 = 0.85 x 100 = 85%

mass fraction C2H6 = 0.12 x 100 = 12%

mass fraction C3H8 = 0.03 x 100 = 3%

The molar mass of CH4 is 16 + 1 = 17

The molar mass of C2H6 is 2(12) + 6(1) = 30

The molar mass of C3H8 is 3(12) + 8(1) = 44

The **molecular weight **of the fuel is therefore:

mw = (0.85 x 17) + (0.12 x 30) + (0.03 x 44) = 18.7 g/mol

Next, we can determine the mass of each component of the fuel:

m_CH4 = 85/100 x mw = 15.8 gm_C2H6 = 12/100 x mw = 2.24 gm_C3H8 = 3/100 x mw = 0.56 g

The stoichiometric coefficient of oxygen required to completely combust CH4 is 2, while for C2H6 and C3H8, it is 3.5 and 5 respectively.

We can, therefore, calculate the theoretical amount of oxygen required to fully oxidize the fuel as follows:

moles of O2 = (m_CH4 / (16 + 1)) x 2 + (m_C2H6 / (2(12) + 6(1))) x 3.5 + (m_C3H8 / (3(12) + 8(1))) x 5= (15.8 / 17) x 2 + (2.24 / 30) x 3.5 + (0.56 / 44) x 5= 1.8716 + 0.029333 + 0.012727= 1.9136 mol

The theoretical amount of air required can now be calculated as follows:

n(O2) = n(fuel) x (O2 / fuel stoichiometric coefficient)

n(O2) = 1.9136 x (32 / 2)

n(O2) = 30.54 mol

The theoretical air/fuel ratio is therefore: n(Air) / n(Fuel) = 30.54 / 1.9136 = 15.96

Therefore, the percent theoretical air needed for the complete combustion of the fuel is 15.96%.

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Considering the volume of a right cylinder, derive to an equation that shows the total or displacement volume of a piston engine as a function of only the bore and the bore to stroke ratio

### Answers

The final equation for the total **displacement** volume of a piston engine as a function of only the bore and the bore-to-stroke ratio is V is πr²h/2.

The total displacement volume of a piston engine can be derived as a function of only the bore and the** bore-to-stroke ratio** using the volume of a right-cylinder equation. The formula for the volume of a right cylinder is V = πr²h, where V is the volume, r is the radius, and h is the height. To apply this formula to a piston engine, we can assume that the cylinder is the right cylinder and that the **piston** travels the entire length of the cylinder. The bore is the diameter of the cylinder, which is twice the radius.

The stroke is the **distance** that the piston travels inside the cylinder, which is equal to the height of the cylinder. Therefore, we can express the volume of a piston engine as

V = π(r/2)²hV = π(r²/4)

The bore-to-stroke ratio is the ratio of the diameter to the stroke, which is equal to 2r/h.

Therefore, we can substitute 2r/h for the bore-to-stroke ratio and simplify the equation:

V = π(r²/4)hV

= π(r²/4)(2r/h)hV

= πr²h/2

The final equation for the total displacement volume of a piston engine as a function of only the bore and the bore-to-stroke ratio is V = πr²h/2.

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What is the need of using supporting ICs or peripheral chips along with the microprocessor?

### Answers

Supporting ICs or peripheral chips complement **microprocessors** by expanding I/O capabilities, enhancing system control, and improving performance, enabling optimized functionality of the overall system.

Supporting** integrated circuits (ICs)** or peripheral chips are used in conjunction with microprocessors to enhance and extend the functionality of the overall system. These additional components serve several important purposes:

Interface Expansion: Supporting ICs provide additional input/output (I/O) capabilities, such as serial communication ports (UART, SPI, I2C), **analog-to-digital converters (ADCs)**, digital-to-analog converters (DACs), and timers/counters. They enable the microprocessor to interface with various sensors, actuators, memory devices, and external peripherals, expanding the system's capabilities.

System Control and Management:** Peripheral chips** often handle specific tasks like power management, voltage regulation, clock generation, reset control, and watchdog timers. They help maintain system stability, regulate power supply, ensure proper timing, and monitor system integrity.

Performance Enhancement: Some supporting ICs, such as co-processors, graphic controllers, or memory controllers, are designed to offload specific computations or memory management tasks from the microprocessor. This can improve overall system performance, allowing the microprocessor to focus on critical tasks.

Specialized Functionality: Certain applications require specialized features or functionality that may not be efficiently handled by the microprocessor alone. Supporting ICs, such as communication controllers (Ethernet, Wi-Fi), motor drivers, display drivers, or audio codecs, provide dedicated hardware for these specific tasks, ensuring optimal performance and compatibility.

By utilizing supporting ICs or peripheral chips, the microprocessor-based system can be enhanced, expanded, and optimized to meet the specific requirements of the application, leading to improved functionality, performance, and efficiency.

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Air enters a compressor at a pressure of 1.0 bar and exits at 8.5 bar. The compressor inlet temperature is 37 °C. The compressor is not insulated. Kinetic and potential energy effects can be neglected. The compressor outlet temperature is 650 K and the power input to the compressor is 500 kW. The compressor is operating at steady-state, and the air can be modeled as an ideal gas. The air mass flow rate through the compressor is 1.8 kg/s.

a. Determine the direction and rate of heat transfer, in kJ/kg.

b. Determine the compressor isentropic efficiency.

c. Draw the process on a T-s diagram (clearly indicate the direction of the process and label the states).

d. Determine the entropy generation rate, in kJ/kg/K, assuming the boundary temperature is 100 °C, and state the nature of the process (reversible, irreversible, or impossible).

Summarize you results in the table below

a. heat transfer, kJ/kg (include direction, so in or out?)

b. isentropic efficiency

d. entropy generation rate, in kJ/kg/K, and is it reversible, irreversible, or impossible?

### Answers

By performing the necessary calculations using the given information and **thermodynamic properties** of the air to obtain the numerical results.

a. The direction and rate of heat transfer can be determined using the energy balance equation for the compressor:

Q = m * (h_out - h_in) - W

where Q is the** heat transfe**r, m is the mass flow rate, h_out and h_in are the specific enthalpies at the outlet and inlet, and W is the power input.

Using the ideal gas model and neglecting kinetic and potential energy effects, the enthalpy change can be approximated as:

h_out - h_in = Cp * (T_out - T_in)

where Cp is the specific** heat capacity** at constant pressure.

Plugging in the given values, we have:

Q = (1.8 kg/s) * Cp * (650 K - 37 °C)

b. The isentropic efficiency (η) of the compressor can be determined by comparing the actual work input to the ideal work input:

η = W_ideal / W_actual

The ideal work input can be calculated using the isentropic process equation:

W_ideal = m * Cp * (T_out_isentropic - T_in)

where T_out_isentropic is the outlet temperature for an isentropic process.

c. The process can be represented on a T-s diagram by plotting the states and connecting them with a line. The direction of the process should be indicated, going from the initial state to the final state. The states can be labeled with their corresponding temperatures and specific entropies.

d. The **entropy generation** rate can be calculated using the entropy generation rate equation:

Entropy generation rate = Q / T_boundary

where T_boundary is the temperature at the boundary where the heat transfer occurs. The nature of the process can be determined based on the reversibility or irreversibility of the process.

Please note that specific values and calculations for parts a, b, and d are not provided in the question, so you would need to perform the necessary calculations using the given information and thermodynamic properties of the air to obtain the numerical results.

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Rocket Lab, the New Zealand-based medium-lift launch provider, is preparing to recover the 1 " stage of their Fletran rocket for reuse. They won't land it back at the pad like SpaceX does, though; instead, they plan to snag the parachuting booster with a mid-air helicopter retricval. Assume the booster weighs 350 kg and that the retrieval system tow cable hangs vertically and can be modeled as a SDOF spring and damper fixed to a "ground" (the mach more massive Furcopter EC145), a) If the retrieval is successful and the booster's mass is suddenly applied to the tow cable, what is the minimum stiffness value, k, required to ensure the resulting "stretch" of the cable does not exceed ∣y∣max=0.50 m measured from the unstretched length? Figure 2 - Electron 1st stage mid-air retrieval b) For safety teasons, it's necessary to prevent any oscillation in the retrieval system. What is the minimum damping constant, c, required to ensure this safety feature.

### Answers

**Rocket Lab**, a New Zealand-based medium-lift launch provider, is preparing to recover the first stage of their Fletran rocket for reuse. They plan to snag the **parachuting** booster with a mid-air helicopter retrieval instead of landing it back at the pad like SpaceX does.

Suppose the booster weighs 350 kg and that the retrieval system tow cable hangs vertically and can be modeled as a **SDOF** spring and damper fixed to a "ground" (the much more massive Furcopter EC145).

a) The minimum **stiffness** value, k, required to ensure the resulting "stretch" of the cable does not exceed |y|max = 0.50 m measured from the unstretched length will be determined. The maximum **oscillation** amplitude should be half a meter or less, according to the problem statement.

Fmax=k(y max) Fmax=k(0.5)

Fmax=0.5k

If we know the weight of the booster and the maximum force that the cable must bear, we can calculate the minimum stiffness required. F = m*g F = 350*9.81 F = 3433.5N k > 3433.5N/0.5k > 6867 N/m

The minimum stiffness value required is 6867 N/m.b) We need to determine the minimum damping constant, c, required to ensure this safety feature since it is necessary to avoid any oscillation in the retrieval system for safety reasons. The damping force is proportional to the velocity of the mass and is expressed as follows:

F **damping** = -c v F damping = -c vmax, where vmax is the maximum velocity of the mass. If we assume that the parachute's speed is 5m/s at the instant of cable retrieval, the maximum velocity of the booster will be 5 m/s. F damping = k y - c v c=v (k y-c v)/k We must ensure that no oscillation is present in the system; therefore, the damping ratio must be at least 1. c = 2 ξ k m c = 2 (1) √(350*9.81/6867) c = 14.3 Ns/m

The minimum damping constant required is 14.3 Ns/m.

Rocket Lab is a New Zealand-based medium-lift launch provider that is about to launch its Fletran rocket's first stage for reuse. They aim to catch the parachuting booster with a mid-air helicopter retrieval instead of landing it back on the pad like SpaceX. A Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) spring and damper mounted on the Furcopter EC145 "ground" will support the retrieval system tow cable hanging vertically. In this problem, we calculated the minimum stiffness and damping values required for this retrieval system. We utilized **F = m*g** to find the minimum stiffness required. The maximum oscillation amplitude of the cable could be half a meter or less, according to the problem statement. As a result, the minimum stiffness required is 6867 N/m. We then calculated the minimum damping constant required to prevent any oscillation in the retrieval system, assuming a speed of 5 m/s at the instant of cable retrieval. We used the formula c = 2 ξ k m to calculate this, and the minimum damping constant required is 14.3 Ns/m.

Rocket Lab is all set to recover the first stage of their Fletran rocket for reuse by catching the parachuting booster with a mid-air helicopter retrieval instead of landing it back on the pad like SpaceX. The minimum stiffness and damping values required for this retrieval system were calculated in this problem. The minimum stiffness required is 6867 N/m, and the minimum damping constant required is 14.3 Ns/m to prevent any oscillation in the retrieval system.

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A 100 mm wide, 600 mm long of cast iron is machined by slab milling process using HSS cutting tool of 132 mm diameter with seven teeth. Spindle surface speed is fixed at 400 mm/s and feed rate per tooth, f is fixed at 0.25 mm/tooth and 3 mm depth of cut. Specific energy, E = 1.97 W.s/mm³. Assume that extent of the cutter movement from work-piece, Ic, equal to half of cutters diameter or lc = D/2. Find: i. Rotational speed ii. Feed rate iii. Material removal rate iv. Power requirement

### Answers

The rotational speed is 191.38 RPM, the feed rate is 16.38 mm/min, the material removal rate is 18.37 mm³/min, and the power requirement is 3.67 W.

To find the **rotational **speed, we can use the formula N = (Vc × 1000) / (π × D), where N is the rotational speed in RPM, Vc is the cutting speed in m/min, and D is the cutter diameter in mm. **Plugging** in the values, we get N = (400 × 1000) / (π × 132) = 191.38 RPM.

The feed rate can be calculated using the formula f = fz × Z × N, where f is the feed rate in mm/min, fz is the feed per tooth in mm/tooth, Z is the number of teeth, and N is the rotational speed in RPM. **Substituting** the given values, we get f = 0.25 × 7 × 191.38 = 16.38 mm/min.

The material removal rate can be calculated using the formula Q = f × lc × ap, where Q is the material removal rate in mm³/min, f is the feed rate in mm/min, lc is the extent of cutter movement from the **workpiece **(D/2), and ap is the depth of cut in mm. Substituting the given values, we get Q = 16.38 × (132/2) × 3 = 18.37 mm³/min.

The power requirement can be calculated using the formula P = Q × E, where P is the power **requirement **in W, Q is the material removal rate in mm³/min, and E is the specific energy in W.s/mm³. Plugging in the values, we get P = 18.37 × 1.97 = 3.67 W.

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A room has a 0.625 m×1.25 m single-pane window with thickness of 4 mm and thermal conductivity of 0.95 W/m°C. The room needs to be maintained at a temperature of 19°C while the outdoor temperature is −2°C. If the convective heat transfer coefficients of the inner and outer surfaces of the window are 8.5 W/m²°C and 16 W/m²°C respectively: (i) Determine the rate of heat loss through the window. (ii) Determine the window's inner surface temperatures. (iii) Draw an annotated electrical circuit of the system. (iv) If the window is replaced with a double-glazed window having 3 mm thick glass panes and 2 mm thick gap between them, what will be the rate of heat loss? Assume the thermal conductivity of air in the gap as 0.01 W/m²°C.

### Answers

(i) The rate of heat loss through the window can be determined using the formula shown below: Q = U * A * ΔTWhere,Q = **Rate **of heat loss U = Overall heat transfer coefficien tA = Area of the windowΔT = Temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor **environments**

[tex]A = 0.625 m x 1.25 m = 0.78125 m²ΔT = 19°C - (-2°C) = 21°C[/tex]

[tex]U = 1/((1/h₁)+(t₁/k)+(t₂/k)+(1/h₂))[/tex]

[tex]\U = 1/((1/h₁)+(t₁/k₁)+(t_g/k_g)+(t₂/k₂)+(1/h₂))[/tex]Where,h₁ and h₂ are the heat transfer **coefficients **of the inner and outer surfaces of the window respectively,t₁ and t₂ are the thicknesses of the inner and outer surfaces of the window respectively,k₁ and k₂ are the thermal conductivities of the glass panes,t_g is the thickness of the air gap between the glass panes,k_g is the thermal **conductivity **of the air in the gap.

The heat transfer coefficients of the inner and outer surfaces of the window are 8.5 W/m²°C and 16 W/m²°C respectively.

k₁ = k₂ = 0.95 W/m°C

h₁ = h₂ = 8.5 W/m²°C

t₁ = t₂ = 0.003 m (3 mm)

t_g = 0.002 m (2 mm)

k_g = 0.01 W/m²°C (Given)

[tex]U = 1/((1/8.5)+(0.003/0.95)+(0.002/0.01)+(0.003/0.95)+(1/16))[/tex]

[tex]U = 3.1231 W/m²°C[/tex]Substituting the values,

[tex]Q = U * A * ΔTQ = 3.1231 * 0.78125 * 21Q = 64.7 Watts[/tex]

The rate of heat loss through the **double-glazed **window is 64.7 Watts.

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slika * aut cad Zoom command is one of the drawing menu commands used to control the size of the view, zoom in and out in the AutoCAD program. False O True O

### Answers

The statement "aut cad Zoom **command **is one of the drawing menu commands used to control the size of the view, zoom in and out in the AutoCAD program" is True.What is AutoCAD?AutoCAD is computer-aided design (CAD) software that is utilized in **architecture**,

engineering, and construction (AEC) to create 2D and 3D **drawings**. AutoCAD software is used by professionals in various industries to help produce **precise **drawings, plans, and blueprints.

There are a variety of commands available in AutoCAD **software **that can be used to edit and create 2D and 3D models. The Zoom command is one of the most common drawing menu commands in AutoCAD.

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3) Define a "symmetric" Poynting vector using the complex fields, S(r)=¹/2(Ē×Ħ*+E*×H) Use the same notation as POZAR, ɛ=ɛ'-jɛ", µ=µ'-jµ" a) Starting with Maxwell's equations, 1.27a – 1.27d, derive an appropriate version of Poynting's theorem. Define P, and Pe, and explain what happened to the reactive power density. V x E = – jωμH – Μ, (1.27a)

V x H = jw€Ē + J, (1.27b)

V. Ď = p, (1.27c)

V. B = 0. (1.27d)

please define Pl and explain what happened to the reactive power density. I will give you thumbs down if the answer is incorrect.

### Answers

The appropriate version of** Poynting's theorem **derived from ** Poynting's theorem **1.27a - 1.27d is given as follows:

Poynting's theorem states that the energy flow density S is the** cross product** of the **electric field **E and the magnetic field H (E × H).S = (1/2)Re (E × H) = (1/2)Re (E * H) = (1/2)Re (E * H *)= (1/2)[(E x H *) + (E * x H)]...Equation (1)where Re () is the real part of the quantity.Using vector calculus and Maxwell's equations 1.27a - 1.27d, the following expressions can be derived:∇ · S = -jω(μ' |H|² - ε' |E|²),...Equation (2)and∇ × E = -jωμH - jωµ''H - jωε'Ē, ∇ × H = jω€Ē + jω€''Ē - jωµ' H...Equation (3)Here, ε, μ, and ε'' are complex-valued relative permittivity, permeability, and loss tangent, respectively. ε' and µ' are their real parts, while ε'' and µ'' are their imaginary parts.The power density P absorbed per unit volume by the material in the field is given by:P = (1/2)ωε''|E|² + (1/2)ωµ''|H|²,...Equation (4)which is the reactive power density. Therefore, the real part of the** power density **is responsible for the energy absorbed by the material and is represented by the symbol Pe:Pe = (1/2)ωε'|E|² + (1/2)ωµ'|H|²,...Equation (5)The Poynting vector is symmetric if the fields are symmetric, which implies that E * = E and H * = H, respectively. Therefore, the Poynting vector simplifies to:S = (1/2)Re (E × H) = (1/2)Re (E * H)

Thus, we have obtained the appropriate version of Poynting's theorem and the expressions for Pl and Pe.

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A trapezoidal power screw has a load of 4000N and a diameter

24mm external diameter and a 35mm collar diameter. friction coefficient

is = 0.16 and the coefficient of friction of the collar is c = 0.12. Determine the

power if the nut moves at 150mm/min

### Answers

Given :Load on **trapezoidal** power screw = 4000NExternal Diameter (d) = 24mmCollar diameter (D) = 35mmFriction coefficient between screw and nut (μ) = 0.16 **Coefficient** of friction of the collar.

L/2 ...(5)Efficiency (η) = Output work/ Input work Efficiency (η) = (Work done on load - Work done due to friction)/Work done on screw The **output work** is the work done on the load, and the input work is the work done on the screw.1. **Diameter** at Mean = (External Diameter + Collar Diameter)/2

[tex]= (24 + 35)/2 = 29.5mm2. Pitch = πd/P (where, P is the pitch of the screw)1/ P = tanθ + (μ+c)/(π.dm)P = πdm/(tanθ + (μ+c))We know that, L = pN,[/tex] where N is the number of threads. Solving for θ we get, θ = 2.65°Putting the **value** of θ in equation (1), we get,η = 0.49Putting the value of η in equation (3), we ge[tex]t,w = Fv/ηw = 4000 x 150/(0.49) = 1,224,489.7959 W = 1.22 KW 1.22 KW.[/tex]

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Resolution limits of this systems: λ = 365 nm; K1 = 0.6 ; N.A. = 0.63? what will be the DOF (depth of focus) with K2 = 1.0?

### Answers

The **depth of focus **(DOF) with K2 = 1.0 will be **approximately **±1.46 μm.

Given: λ = 365 nm; K1 = 0.6; N.A. = 0.63

To calculate depth of focus (DOF) we need to use the following formula:

DOF = ±K2λ/(N.A.)² - K1 λ²/N.A.(K2 - K1)

Where,λ = **Wavelength **of light

K1 = Constant of **proportionality **dependent upon the type of detail to be resolved

N.A. = Numerical aperture

K2 = Another constant of proportionality dependent upon the type of detail to be **resolved**.

Using the given values, we get,

DOF = ±K2λ/(N.A.)² - K1 λ²/N.A.(K2 - K1)= ±1.0 × 365 × 10⁻⁹ m/ (0.63)² - 0.6 × (365 × 10⁻⁹ m)²/ (0.63) (1.0 - 0.6)≈ ±1.46 μm (approximately)

Hence, the depth of focus (DOF) with K2 = 1.0 will be approximately ±1.46 μm.

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In many refrigeration systems, the working fluid is pressurized in order to raise its temperature. Consider a device in which saturated vapor refrigerant R-134a is compressed from 180kPa to 1200 kPa. The compressor has an isentropic efficiency of 86%. What is the temperature of the refrigerant leaving the compressor? ____∘C How much power is needed to operate this compressor? ____ kJ/kg What is the minimum power to operate an adiabatic compressor under these conditions? ____ kJ/kg

### Answers

The** temperature **of the refrigerant leaving the compressor is approximately -5.1°C. The power needed to operate the compressor is approximately 39.9 kJ/kg. The minimum power to operate an adiabatic compressor under these conditions is the same as the power needed, approximately 39.9 kJ/kg.

To determine the temperature of the refrigerant leaving the compressor, we can use the** isentropic **process assumption. In an isentropic process, the entropy of the working fluid remains constant. Since the refrigerant is initially in a saturated vapor state, we can use the saturation temperature corresponding to the initial pressure of 180 kPa to determine the initial temperature.

Next, we can use the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, which is given as 86%, to calculate the actual enthalpy at the compressor outlet. The isentropic efficiency is defined as the ratio of the actual work done by the compressor to the work done in an isentropic process.

Using the pressure ratio of the compressor (1200 kPa / 180 kPa), we can calculate the actual enthalpy at the compressor outlet. From the actual enthalpy, we can find the corresponding temperature using the saturation properties of the refrigerant.

The power needed to operate the compressor can be calculated using the enthalpy difference between the compressor inlet and outlet, multiplied by the mass flow rate. Since the refrigerant is **saturated** vapor at the compressor inlet, we can assume a negligible change in specific volume and consider the enthalpy difference as the work done by the compressor.

The minimum power to operate an adiabatic compressor under these conditions is the power required for an isentropic process with the same pressure ratio. It represents the ideal case where there are no losses due to irreversibilities, and all the work done by the compressor goes into increasing the **enthalpy **of the refrigerant.

Therefore, the minimum power required for the adiabatic compressor under these conditions is the same as the power needed to operate the compressor, as there are no additional losses considered in this scenario.

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1 point Drag the correct keyword from the word bank given below to complete each sentence Answer is the prime objective of a control system design, we always ensure that our controller Answer the system by relocating the Answer such that they all lie in the Answer Robustness Stability Rigidity normalises minimises stabilises gains zeros poles left-half plane jw-axis I right-half plane1 point Drag the correct keyword from the word bank given below to complete each sentence Answer is the prime objective of a control system design, we always ensure that our controller Answer the system by relocating the Answer such that they all lie in the Answer Robustness Stability Rigidity normalises minimises stabilises gains zeros poles left-half plane jw-axis I right-half plane

### Answers

The **control system design** process is to ensure that the system is **stable** and can operate robustly in the presence of any uncertainties.

Answer is the prime objective of a control system design, we always ensure that our controller stabilises the system by relocating the poles such that they all lie in the left-half plane.

What is control system design?

Control system design is a process in **engineering** that deals with designing systems that behave or function in a specific way.

The control system design process is concerned with the design, **configuration**, and **optimization **of various aspects of a system, including sensors, control algorithms, and actuators.

In a control system design, the prime objective is to ensure that the controller stabilizes the system by relocating the poles such that they all lie in the left-half plane.

This approach helps in normalizing the system and minimizing any uncertainties that may arise while the system is in operation.

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A LED lamp rated 13 W is on for 28 minutes and a stereo of 52W is on for 9 hours. How much energy has been used in Watt-hours? (response not displayed)

### Answers

Given data:Power of LED lamp = 13 WTime for which LED lamp is used = 28 minutesPower of stereo = 52 WTime for which stereo is used = 9 hours = 540 minutesTo calculate:Energy consumed by LED lamp and stereo in **Watt-**hours

**Energy = Power × Time**Energy consumed by LED lamp in Watt-hours = Power × Time= 13 W × 28 minutes= 364 Watt-minutes= 364 ÷ 60 = 6.067 Watt-hoursEnergy consumed by stereo in Watt-hours = Power × Time= 52 W × 540 minutes= 28080 Watt-minutes= 28080 ÷ 60 = 468 Watt-**hours**

Therefore, the total energy consumed by **LED lamp **and stereo in Watt-hours is 6.067 + 468 = 474.067 Watt-hours. The answer is 474.067.

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When a LED lamp rated 13 W is on for 28 minutes and a stereo of 52W is on for 9 hours. The **energy** that has been used in Watt-hours is 832 **Watt-hours**.

How to calculate the value

The LED **lamp** uses 13W * 28 minutes = 364 Watt-hours.

The **stereo** uses 52W * 9 hours = 468 Watt-hours.

The total energy used is 364 + 468 = 832 **Watt-hours**.

So the answer is 832.

In conclusion, when a LED lamp rated 13 W is on for 28 **minutes** and a stereo of 52W is on for 9 hours. The energy that has been used in Watt-hours is 832 Watt-hours.

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Voltage signals on the output of a piezoelectric pressure transducer system must be conditioned for further analysis. To address this task, an engineer needs to design an active, inverting, high-pass RC filter of 1st-order with a cutoff frequency of 30 kHz and a gain of 10.5. The following components are available: type 741 op-amp; 3.5-uF capacitor; and resistors of all possible values. [3 points] (a) Draw a circuit diagram of an active, inverting, high-pass RC filter of 1st order: [7 points] (b) Calculate values of components for this filter: Answer: (b) Values of components: [10 points] (c) Calculate the magnitude ratio and the dynamic error for this filter at the input signal frequency of 125 kHz.

### Answers

(a) An active, **inverting**, high-pass RC filter of the 1st order can be designed using a 741 op-amp and a capacitor C of 3.5 μF, and a resistor R1 as shown below:

(b) Calculation of values of **components**:

For a 1st-order active high-pass filter with a gain of 10.5 and a cutoff frequency of 30 kHz, the frequency response of the system can be described as follows:

G(f) = - R1Cf / (1 + R1Cf)

At the cutoff frequency, the **gain** is given by:

10.5 = - R1Cf / (1 + R1Cf)

Cutoff frequency: f = 30 kHz, Gain: A = 10.5

Solving for R1C:

R1C = 1.901 x 10^-5 seconds

Let R1 = 1 kΩ, then C = 19.01 nF

(c) Calculation of the magnitude ratio and **dynamic** error for this filter:

Given signal frequency: f1 = 125 kHz

Gain at the input signal frequency is given by:

A1 = - R1Cf1 / (1 + R1Cf1)

= - 1000 x 3.5 x 10^-6 x 125 x 10^3 / (1 + 1000 x 3.5 x 10^-6 x 125 x 10^3)

= - 0.4375

Magnitude ratio:

|A1/A| = 0.04167

Dynamic error:

DE = 100 x (|A1/A| - 1)

= 100 x (0.04167 - 1)

= - 95.833 %

Therefore, the **magnitude** ratio and dynamic error for this filter at an input signal frequency of 125 kHz are 0.04167 and -95.833%, respectively.

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What is meant by to remodel an existing design of a

optimized wicked sintered heat pipe?

### Answers

**Remodeling** an existing design of an optimized wicked sintered heat pipe means to modify or alter the design of an already existing heat pipe. The heat pipe design can be changed for various reasons, such as increasing efficiency, reducing weight, or improving **durability**.

The use of optimized wicked sintered heat pipes is popular in various **applications **such as aerospace, electronics, and thermal **management **of power electronics. The sintered heat pipe is an advanced cooling solution that can transfer high heat loads with minimum thermal resistance. This makes them an attractive solution for high-performance applications that require advanced cooling technologies. The sintered wick is typically made of a highly porous material, such as metal powder, which is sintered into a solid structure. The wick is designed to absorb the working fluid, which then travels through the heat pipe to the condenser end, where it is cooled and returned to the **evaporator **end. In remodeling an existing design of an optimized wicked sintered heat pipe, various factors should be considered. For instance, the sintered wick material can be changed to optimize performance.

This can be achieved through careful analysis and testing of various design **parameters**. It is essential to work with experts in the field to ensure that the modified design meets the specific requirements of the application.

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A 12VDC, 1.5A per phase, two-phase PM bipolar stepper motor with eight

rotor poles is to be controlled from anMSP430F2274. Provide a discrete component

H-bridge interface to control the motorwith aGPIO port in theMSPand

indicate the actual components to be used. Provide a safe to operate interface

and a function accepting as parameters(via registers) the direction in which the

stepper will move and the number of steps in each move. Assume the motor is

to be operated in half-step mode. Determine the number of steps per revolution

to be obtained in this interface.

### Answers

Given that the number of rotor poles is 8, the number of steps per revolution is **4*8 = 32.**

The given problem states that we need to provide a discrete component **H-bridge** interface to control the motor with a GPIO port in the MSP430F2274. We are also required to indicate the actual components to be used. In addition to this, we need to provide a safe-to-operate interface and a function that accepts the direction in which the stepper will move and the number of steps in each move (via registers).

The motor is to be operated in half-step mode. We are also supposed to determine the number of steps per **revolution **to be obtained in this interface.

To control a motor with MSP430F2274, we need to use an H-bridge. The H-bridge consists of 4 switches. The circuit which we need to use is shown below:We need to use two H-bridges for controlling a bipolar stepper motor. We can use 4 MOSFETs for building an H-bridge. MOSFETs can switch faster than transistors, which makes them more efficient and reliable.

The circuit which we need to use for controlling the motor is shown below:

To achieve the direction of the stepper motor, we need to control the sequence of the current. The sequence of current is given as below:

Phase 1-Current flows through coil A1 and A2

Phase 2-Current flows through coil B1 and B2

Phase 3-Current flows through coil A1 and A2 in the opposite direction

Phase 4-Current flows through coil B1 and B2 in the opposite direction

Using this sequence, we can control the stepper motor.

We need to give the parameters of direction and number of steps through **registers**. For obtaining the number of steps per revolution, we need to know the number of rotor poles.

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A pressure gauge with a range between 0-1 bar with an accuracy of £ 5% fs (full-scale). Find the maximum error of the gauge.

### Answers

The maximum error of the **gauge **can be calculated using the accuracy specification given as a percentage of the** full-scale (FS) range**.

Given:

Range of the gauge = 0-1 bar

Accuracy = ±5% FS

To find the **maximum error**, we need to calculate 5% of the full-scale range.

Full-scale range = Maximum value - Minimum value

= 1 bar - 0 bar

= 1 bar

Maximum error = Accuracy * Full-scale range

= 5% * 1 bar

= 0.05 bar

Therefore,** the maximum error of the gauge is 0.05 bar.**

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A car is travelling down a mountain of a slope of 20%. The speed of the car in 80 km/h and it should be stopped in a distance of 75 meters. Given is the diameter of the tires = 500 mm. Calculate: 1. The average braking torque to be applied to stop the car. (Please neglect all the frictional energy except for the brake). (5 points) 2. Now, if the energy is stored in a 25 Kg cast iron brake drum, by how much will the temperature of the drum rise? (Use the specific heat for cast iron may be taken as 520J/kg C). (5 points) 3. Determine, also, the minimum coefficient of friction between the tires and the road in order that the wheels do not skid, assuming that the weight is equally distributed among all the four wheels. (5 points)

### Answers

The minimum **coefficient **of friction between the tires and the road so that the **wheels **do not skid is 0.001021.

Given: The slope of the mountain = 20%The velocity of the car = 80 km/h. The stopping distance of the car = 75 m

The diameter of the tires = 500 mmThe mass of the brake drum = 25 kgThe specific heat of cast iron = 520 J/kg°CTo calculate:1. The average braking torque to be applied to stop the car.2. The temperature rise of the brake drum.3. The minimum coefficient of friction between the tires and the road so that the wheels do not skid.1. The average braking torque to be applied to stop the car:Initial velocity of the car, u = 80 km/h = 22.22 m/s

Final **velocity **of the car, v = 0Distance travelled by the car, s = 75 mThe equation of motion relating u, v, a, and s is:v^2 - u^2 = 2as

Therefore,a = (v^2 - u^2) / 2s = (0 - (22.22)^2) / (2 × 75) = -13.32 m/s^2The acceleration of the car is negative because it is opposite to the velocity of the car. This negative acceleration is also known as deceleration.The torque required to stop the car is given by:T = IαWhereT = torqueI = moment of inertia of the wheelsα = angular acceleration of the wheelsLet's calculate the moment of inertia of the wheels.I = (1/2)mr^2where m is the mass of each wheel and r is the radius of the wheel = 0.5 mThe mass of each wheel can be calculated as:m = (π/4)ρd^2twhere d is the diameter of the wheel and t is the thickness of the wheelρ is the density of the wheel = 7850 kg/m^3m = (π/4) × 7850 × (0.5)^2 × 0.025 = 30.94 kgI = (1/2) × 30.94 × (0.5)^2 = 3.87 kgm^2The angular acceleration of the wheels is given byα = a / r = -13.32 / 0.5 = -26.64 rad/s^2Therefore,T = Iα = 3.87 × -26.64 = -103.01 Nm

The average braking torque to be applied to stop the car is 103.01 Nm.2. The temperature rise of the brake drum:The frictional energy produced by the brake is used to increase the temperature of the brake drum. Therefore, the increase in temperature of the brake drum is given by:Q = msΔTwhereQ is the heat energy required to raise the temperature of the brake drumm is the mass of the brake drums is the specific heat of cast ironΔT is the temperature rise of the brake drumQ = msΔT25 × 520 × ΔT = frictional energy

Frictional energy = work done by the brake = force × distanceLet's calculate the force exerted by the brake.Force exerted by the brake = braking torque / radius of the brake drum = 103.01 / 0.25 = 412.04 NLet's calculate the work done by the brake.Work done by the brake = force × distance = 412.04 × 0.5π = 648.9 JFrictional energy = 648.9 JTherefore,25 × 520 × ΔT = 648.9ΔT = 0.5°CThe temperature of the brake drum will increase by 0.5°C.3. The minimum coefficient of friction between the tires and the road so that the wheels do not skid:Let's calculate the gravitational force acting on the car.Force due to gravity, F = mgwhere m is the mass of the car and g is the **acceleration **due to gravity = 9.81 m/s^2m = F / g = 10294.35 N

The frictional force acting on the car is given by:f = μRwhere μ is the coefficient of friction and R is the normal reaction force acting on the car.Let's calculate the normal reaction force acting on the car.

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a) (10 pts). Using a decoder and external gates, design the combinational circuit defined by the following three Boolean functions: F1 (x, y, z) = (y'+ x) z F2 (x, y, z) = y'z' + xy + yz' F3 (x, y, z) = x' z' + xy

### Answers

Given** Boolean **functions are:F1 (x, y, z) = (y'+ x) z F2 (x, y, z) = y'z' + xy + yz' F3 (x, y, z) = x' z' + xyThe Boolean function F1 can be represented using the decoder as shown below: The diagram of the **decoder **is shown below:

As shown in the above figure, y'x is the input and z is the output for this circuit.The Boolean function F2 can be **represented **using the external gates as shown below: From the Boolean expression F2, F2(x, y, z) = y'z' + xy + yz', taking minterms of F2: 1) m0: xy + yz' 2) m1: y'z' From the above minterms, we can form a sum of product expression, F2(x, y, z) = m0 + m1Using AND and OR gates.

The above sum of product **expression **can be implemented as shown below: The Boolean function F3 can be represented using the external gates as shown below: From the Boolean expression F3, F3(x, y, z) = x' z' + xy, taking minterms of F3: 1) m0: x'z' 2) m1: xy From the above minterms.

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The current in an RLC circuit is described by dt 2 d 2 i +10 dt di +25i=0 If r(0)=8 A and di(0)/dt=0, then for t>0,λ(t)=(A+Bt)e st A,

### Answers

Therefore, the solution to the differential equation is given by: **i(t) = (40 + 5t)e-5t.**

The current in an RLC circuit is described by dt 2 d 2 i +10 dt di +25i=0. If r(0)=8 A and

di(0)/dt=0, then for t>0,λ(t)=(A+Bt)e st A, where λ(t) is the function that describes the current.

The first step in solving this problem is to find the roots of the characteristic equation which are given by the following quadratic equation: r2+10r+25=0To solve this **quadratic **equation, we can use the quadratic formula:

r=−b±b2−4ac2a

=−10±100−4(1)(25)2(1)

=−5

The roots are both -5, which means that the general solution of the differential **equation **is given by i(t) = (A + Bt)e-5t

To find A and B, we need to use the initial conditions:

r(0)=8 A and di(0)/dt=0

The first initial condition tells us that i(0) = 8, so:A + B(0)

= 8A

= 8

The second initial condition tells us that the derivative of i with respect to t is 0 when t = 0, so:

di/dt = -5(A + Bt)e-5t + Be-5t

= 0At t

= 0, this becomes:-

5A + B = 0B

= 5A

= 40

Therefore, the solution to the differential equation is given by:

i(t) = (40 + 5t)e-5t

The current in an RLC circuit is described by dt 2 d 2 i +10 dt di +25i=0.

If r(0)=8 A and di(0)/dt=0, then for t>0,λ(t)=(A+Bt)e st A, where λ(t) is the function that describes the current.

The first step in solving this problem is to find the roots of the characteristic equation which are given by the following quadratic equation: r2+10r+25=0.To solve this quadratic equation, we can use the quadratic formula:

r=−b±b2−4ac2a

=−10±100−4(1)(25)2(1)

=−5.

The roots are both -5, which means that the general solution of the differential equation is given by i(t) = (A + Bt)e-5t.

To find A and B, we need to use the initial conditions:

r(0)=8 A and di(0)/dt=0.

The first initial condition tells us that i(0) = 8, so:

A + B(0) = 8A

= 8.

The second initial condition tells us that the derivative of i with respect to t is 0 when t = 0, so:

di/dt = -5(A + Bt)e-5t + Be-5t

= 0.At t

= 0, this becomes:-

5A + B = 0B

= 5A

= 40.

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A single reduction gear system is to transmit power P-4.4 kW at a constant speed N=1300 rpm where the speed ratio is 3:1. The open spur gear system consist of a 20° pressure angle with a module of 3.0 mm and a face width of 38mm. The pinion has 16 teeth. The teeth are uncrowned with a transmission accuracy level number of Q,-6. Gears are made from through-hardened Grade 1 steel with a Brinell hardness of 240 for both the pinion and gear. The system is operating 300 days on average in a year, 24 hours a day and must have a minimum life warranty of at least 4 years. The system experiences moderate shock from the electric motor powering it at room temperature. For a reliability of 90, and rim-thickness factor given as K=1, design the two gears for bending and wear using the AGMA method. Determine the pinion diameter (mm). (2) Determine the gear diameter (mm). (2) The tangential velocity (m/s). (2) The tangential load (gears) (KN). (2) The radial load (KN). (2) The dynamic factor. (4) The load distribution factor. (6) Load cycle factor for the pinion (2) Load cycle factor for the gear. (2) Pitting resistance stress cycle factor for the pinion. (2) Pitting resistance stress cycle factor for the gear. (2) Bending factor of safety. (6) Wear factor of safety. (6)

### Answers

The **pinion **has 16 teeth, and both gears are uncrowned with a **transmission **accuracy level number of Q, -6. The gears are made from through-hardened Grade 1 steel with a Brinell hardness of 240.

Pinion Diameter Calculation:

∴ PdN/9540 = (T1-T2)/2×cosαWhere, α = 20°.**Pressure angle** = 20°.Module = 3 mm .Diametral pitch, P = 1/3 = 0.33333Tooth load, Wt = PdN/2543,Wt = (1.5 × 1.47 × 1000) / (433.33 × 9540)= 0.00247m = 2.47 mm,**Tangential Load**, Ft= Wt × Tan(20°)= 2.47 × Tan(20°)= 0.9064 KN,Transverse Load, Fr= Wt × Cot(20°)= 2.47 × Cot(20°)= 0.6757 KN

[tex]dP³×Np×Fb×K×Y×SNdP[/tex]

= [tex](2FT/πσb)¹/³= (2×0.9064 × 1000 / (π×131.6×1000))¹/³= 0.0267 m= 26.7 mm[/tex]

[tex]P= Fⁿ×Y₁×Y₂= 1 × 0.00525 × 0.00438= 0.00002357[/tex]

[tex]kf= 1.21, kf1= 1, J= 0.36, K1= 1.75×kf1 / (kf1+J)= 1.75×1 / (1+0.36)= 1.27Vt = πdP × N / 60 = π×26.7×1300 / 60[/tex]

= 1445.5 m/minV = 0.5×(dP+dG)×N / 60

= 0.5×(26.7+80.1)×1300 / 60= 722.45 m/min...

[tex]\therefore V= V_t /cos(\beta)[/tex]

= [tex]1445.5 / cos(20°)= 1523.4 m/min[/tex]

[tex]Wt = (T1-T2) / 2 = Ft / Tan(20°)= 0.9064 / Tan(20°)= 2.47 kN/m[/tex]

[tex]Cs = (b m cos(β)) / (π d sin(β))= 0.38 × 3 × cos(20°) / (π × 80.1 × sin(20°))= 1.5997[/tex]

The wear factor of safety is given by

[tex]Sw = [(Yn x Ze x Zr x Yθ x Yz x Yd)/(Kf x Kv)] x (Ft / (d x b)).[/tex]..[tex]implies Sw= [(1 × 1 × 1 × 1 × 1 × 1) / (0.4654 × 2.3234)] × (0.9064 / (80.1 × 0.038))[/tex]= 1.3879

The required pinion **diameter **is 26.7 mm, the gear diameter is 80.1 mm, the tangential velocity is 1523.4 m/min, the tangential load is 0.9064 kN, the radial load is 0.6757 kN, the Pitting resistance stress cycle factor for the gear is 19.0386, the Bending factor of safety is 3.8484, and the Wear factor of safety is 1.3879.

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